“My intention had been that this sanctuary of All Gods should reproduce the likeness
of the terrestrial globe and of the stellar sphere, that globe wherein areenclosed the seeds of eternal fire, and that hollow sphere containing all. Such was also the form of our ancestors’ huts where the smoke of man’s earliest hearths escaped through an orifice at the top. The cupola,  constructed of hard but lightweight volcanic stone, which seemed still to share in the upward movement of flames, revealed the sky through a great hole at the centre showing alternately dark and blue. This temple, both open and mysteriously enclosed, was conceived as a solar quadrant.” 



PANTHEON is an international research project funded by the EU Horizon Europe program and the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology. It aims to develop an integrated assessment modelling framework and decarbonisation roadmaps to help the EU and China achieve carbon neutrality while considering socio-economic and environmental impacts. 

Project objectives:

Main effort of the PANTHEON Project team is devoted to reach the following objectives:

To facilitate mutual, cross-regional, interdisciplinary learning through engagement processes between consortium partners and stakeholders. PANTHEON also develops assessment tools for monitoring social learning within the project team and participating stakeholders.

To provide an extended integrated assessment model – including technological, regulatory, social, health and environmental factors – encased in a participatory modeling approach to explore specific transformation options in detail.

To forecast coherent decarbonization pathways  until 2050 and 2060, considering gradual and supply-rich technologies, efficiency and lifestyle scenarios, with socio-economic environmental impacts translated at fine spatial and sectoral resolution at 5-year or smaller policy-relevant time steps (Backcasting).

To increase the understanding of socio-economic-environmental challenges and opportunities in the transition to climate neutrality, including the transformation of labour markets and distributional repercussions for different sectors, social groups and world regions.

To co-develop with stakeholders various scenarios as inputs to the integrated assessment model to reflect lifestyle choices, using the most detailed consumption database for different types of households in rich and poor countries co-developed with the World Bank.

To deliver a co-created modeling framework in which stakeholders inform scenarios, interact with model results, and co-create with the project team roadmaps and policy recommendations across scale that address equity concerns, trade-offs and support actionable science.

To ensure that PANTHEON interacts with and contributes to other actions developed under the EU-China CCB & FAB Flagships. To exchange insights on best practices as well as insights & recommendations that inform the sustainability of agri-food systems, biodiversity, the needs of a growing population, the reduction of food and agricultural losses and waste, and the provision of safe and healthy foodstuffs.

To develop a comprehensive and high-resolution emission inventory by integrating a high-resolution energy inventory, data on major industrial point sources, and satellite remote sensing data to respond dynamically to the implementation of various decarbonization technologies.

Key features:

Participatory Approach

Participatory integrated assessment modelling framework based on co-development with experts and stakeholders.

High-Resolution Data

Forecasting approach based on both socioeconomic and environmental data from multiple sources and at high resolution.

Impactful by Design

Stakeholders are identified, mapped, and engagement via workshops, knowledge arenas, network discourse analysis techniques.

Project Duration

From March 2024 to February 2028


WP1: High-Resolution Emission Accounting System


  • Develop a high-resolution emissions accounting framework incorporating plant-level production, satellite-based remote sensing, and ground-level monitoring of greenhouse gases and pollutants.

  • Utilize this framework to explore net-zero carbon technology roadmaps in key regions and industries.

  • Leverage the Copernicus satellite remote sensing system.

WP1 focuses on creating a comprehensive and high-resolution emission inventory, integrating energy and industrial emission data with satellite remote sensing. This system, featuring a 10 x 10 km resolution, will dynamically respond to various decarbonization technologies, assessing greenhouse gases and pollutants across over 200 sectors under different net-zero pathways. Key activities include developing spatially explicit accounting of key industrial emissions and utilizing the framework to evaluate and improve emissions reduction strategies.

WP2: Future Prospects of Low and Negative Emission Technologies


  • Assess and catalogue net-zero technology options in a techno-economic database.

  • Evaluate pilots and scale-up disruptive technologies until 2060 with stakeholder input.

  • Forecast future technology costs and deployments, co-creating net-zero roadmaps.

  • Develop detailed plant-level decarbonization pathways.

WP2 investigates various technologies’ roles in decarbonizing the energy and industrial sectors. This involves identifying both mature and emerging technologies, such as green hydrogen and enhanced geothermal systems, and compiling data on their readiness, efficiency, emission reduction potential, and costs. Stakeholder and expert insights will supplement literature reviews to provide a comprehensive understanding of these technologies’ future impacts and scalability.

WP3: Integrated Modelling Framework for Scenario Analysis


  • Create an innovative and integrated modelling framework.

  • Develop technology scenarios using Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) until 2060.

  • Co-create back casting scenarios with a focus on socio-economic and environmental indicators.

  • Refine constraints and parameters with stakeholder input.

WP3 aims to combine various models, including IAM, multisectoral input-output models (MRIO), and Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models, to provide comprehensive scenario analyses. These models will link to modules assessing air pollution, public health, water consumption, and land use, delivering a broad spectrum of socio-economic and environmental indicators. The framework will incorporate technological and dynamic features from WP2 and will support the development and evaluation of decarbonization scenarios.

WP4: Climate-Environment Co-Benefits and Policy Pathways


  • Synthesize insights from past research to inform stakeholder engagements and policy recommendations.

  • Model land use, biodiversity pressures, and public health impacts of decarbonization.

  • Assess a wide range of social, economic, climate, and environmental co-benefits and trade-offs.

  • Generate and communicate roadmaps and formulate inclusive policy recommendations.

WP4 extends the integrated modelling framework from WP3 to evaluate various impact categories at a fine spatial resolution. This includes socio-economic factors like employment and income distribution, as well as environmental aspects such as air quality and biodiversity. The outcomes will be synthesized into roadmaps and policy recommendations, facilitating meaningful engagement with stakeholders and guiding decarbonization efforts.

WP5: Knowledge Exchange and Stakeholder Engagement


  • Lead stakeholder engagement to develop an innovative co-produced conceptual framework for integrated assessment modelling.

  • Validate and refine computational modelling results with stakeholder inputs.

  • Ensure mutual learning between EU and Chinese partners.

  • Applying the Capturing Invisible framework, to foster cross-sectoral dialogue with a transdisciplinary perspective.

WP5 is dedicated to engaging transdisciplinary stakeholders to co-produce the integrated assessment modeling framework with WP3, and to ensure reflexivity throughout the project together with the Advisory Board and consortium partners to ensure alignment with project objectives and to promote just transition. This includes critical reflection on model assumptions, scenario feedback and refinement of policy recommendations. WP5 also works closely with WP4 to assess and incorporate stakeholder insights into the final recommendations, promoting a robust and inclusive approach to decarbonization.


WP6: Communication, Dissemination, and Exploitation


  • Design and implement a comprehensive communication and dissemination plan.

  • Create communication tools and conduct extensive dissemination activities.

  • Engage and inform stakeholders to ensure widespread implementation and sustainability of PANTHEON results.

  • Develop an exploitation plan for project outcomes.

WP6 focuses on developing and continuously updating a communication, dissemination, and exploitation plan to maximize the project’s impact. This includes mapping relevant audiences, co-designing outreach activities, and producing communication tools. The project will use a dedicated website and social media to share progress and results, ensuring open access to scientific publications and public deliverables. WP6 also explores scenarios for the long-term maintenance of project outcomes.


WP7: Project Management and Coordination


  • Provide scientific direction and drive project progress.

  • Establish an efficient project management structure for operational, administrative, financial, and legal issues.

  • Ensure timely and quality delivery of results, and build connections with other projects for impact maximization.

  • Implement appropriate ethics and data protection policies.

WP7 focuses on coordinating the project at both scientific and operational levels, ensuring cohesion and focus. Regular communications through the General Assembly will monitor progress, gather contributions, identify risks, and ensure timely deliverables. This includes liaison with the European Commission, managing financials, and fostering synergy among partners. WP7 also addresses contractual, ethical, and data protection issues, ensuring high-quality standards and risk management throughout the project.